The Blue Yeti is my go-to microphone for podcasting and much of my voice work. While you can also check out some of my pro-level gear, I find that with the right room and the right software, this mic can sound just as good as professional analog mics.
The Blue Snowball is an amazing microphone for around $50. It lacks the multiple pickup patterns and the headphone jack of the Yeti but it sounds great!
After retiring my AKG C3000B, I am now using this amazing mic from Sennheiser. For the money, this is one of the best professional-grade microphones on the market.
If you go with a pro-grade microphone, you will need a way to convert the analog audio via an XLR to something that your computer can understand (digital.) This is a great, affordable digital signal processor that will make your mic sound great!
I use Adobe Audition for all my voiceover and podcast production. You can read about this and some other software options on my blog.
I worked for years without a pop filter. As a pro, I could get away with it. However, I am now a believer. This thing save me so much time. I can control my pops and whistles but every once in a while one would slip through. Not anymore!
I have worn a lot of headphones. These are my absolute favorites of all time! They offer great sound reproduction and they feel great hour after hour.
I find it important to have a good pair of reference monitors so I can make sure everything sounds great. I am currently using a pair of Akai Professional RPM3s. However, since they don't sell those anymore, these Mackie's will be my next monitors.